inJapanese 
Translation by Unix,Inc.


The principle of Personal Care

m‚Pn The difference between personal care and nursing.

‚`DBoth of them have the same purpose i.e. helping to improve the health of the sick people. 

‚aDPersonal care means not only nursing the sick and elderly, but also taking care of their daily physical needs, i.e. eating, changing clothes, taking a bath, helping with lavatory problems and so on. It includes housework such as housecleaning, cooking and shopping. Some elderly people who despite being healthy and active in society still need extra care. Such people are included as requiring personal care.

‚bDTaking care of daily physical needs.

category contents
(1)Organizing the environment Location, size, temperature, ventilation, air-conditioning, tidiness and clean linen in rooms.
(2)Keeping the body clean Face washing, bathing, wiping off the body with hot or wet towels in bed, shampooing, cleaning inside the mouth and false teeth.
(3)Help with eating Proper meals for the aged (a diet treatment, etc.), how to feed.
(4)Sleeping and rest A sound sleep and rest quietly in bed.
(5)Positioning in bed and exercise A help for changing position in bed, a patient's move, such as going to the bathroom. Rehabilitation not for remaining function problems.
(6)Dealing with bodily waste How to use a toilet stool and diaper and matters that require attention when use them, and enema.
(7)Bedding and night clothes How to make a bed, change bed sheets, and clever choice of them and clothes (night clothes, under wears, etc.).
(8)Avoiding bedsores and treatment when they occur Sterilization of sanitary supplies and equipment. Supplies for bedsore.
(9)Relieving pain Hot or cold compress and comfortable posture.
(10)Administration of medicine Matters to be cautious of when giving medicine.
(11)Observing the condition and reporting it to a doctor  Temperature, pulse, and breathing should be monitoring.@Call a doctor if abnormal condition occurred.
(12)Safety first Avoiding stumbling, burning, or the swallowing of improper things.
(13)Mental care Relieving mental distress and anxiety. Encouraging a@positive attitude in coping with the disease.
(14)Relationship with people Considering problems with family or others.
(15)Housework Cooking, shopping, doing the laundry, housecleaning, and so on.

‚cDFactors to consider in basic nursing

1.@Normal breathing.
2.@Proper food and drinks.
3.@All processes involving the excretion of waste from the body.
4.@Doing exercise and having a proper posture. @(Walking, standing, and changing position and posture in bed)
5.@Having a good sleep and resting well.
6.@Choosing proper clothes which can be put on and taken off easily.
7.@Staying in proper body temperature, by maintaining comfortable room@condition and wearing clothing.
8.@Keeping the body clean, dressing neatly and protecting the skin. 
9.@Keeping harmful substances out of reach to protect the patient and others in the vicinity.
10. Communicating emotional needs and anxieties in order to let others know how you are.
11. Having a belief or religion to follow.
12. Trying to find something to do which encourages a sense of achievement, and hence fulfillment.
13. Attending groups or recreation activities for fun.
14. Having new experiences through learning and retaining a sense of curiosity. This will help patients to recover their health.

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m‚Qn Various fields relating to personal care 

[Closely related fields]
1. Social welfare
2. Family, Life, and Business
3. Nursery and Education

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m‚Rn Purpose, Principle and Practical Activities

[The purpose] 
To support disabled people so that they can live comfortably by themselves, and develop ways by which they can associate with various kinds of people in daily life.

mThe principle]
1. To respect their individual culture, customary life style and sense of value.
2. To encourage a self-reliant life.
3. To respect their self-determination.
4. To help them find meaning in life and happiness in living, despite being handicapped.
5. To support their attempts to keep in touch with society and life in general.

[Important questions to consider in order to help the disabled person in daily lifen

1. Are the fundamental conditions for living all by themselves is fulfilled?
2. Can they manage basic daily activities on their own?
3. Are they maintaining mental and physical activity?
4. Are they are living with a sense of fulfillment and contentment.
5. Are there any obstacles hindering them living by themselves?
6. Do they know about the basic issues for making their life safer?


m‚Sn Attitude the personal care should take forwards the patient

1. Keeping the patients medical matters confidential.
2. Respecting the patients' personal privacy.
3. Building a relationship of mutual trust with the patient.
4. To put the patient's needs first and always act in their best interests. To try to get to understand the patients unspoken needs and underlying motives.
5. Meticulous monitoring of patients.
6. Cooperating with others in related occupational fields.

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[‚T] Characteristics of a good care manager

‚PD The caring for elderly people will be and increasingly important part the Care Management Service in the future so it is vital that care managers have the following attributes.

(1) Counseling and advocacy: The ability to support elderly people and their family by listening to their problems and giving advice. The care manager should work with the family trying to remove obstacles and so reduce anxiety. He should also be prepared to act as an advocate voicing the family's comments to outside bodies.

(2) Coordination: In the case of a problem between the people involved in caring for the elderly, the ability to reconcile the disputing parties after carefully understanding the position of each of the involved.

(3) Monitoring: The ability to carefully observe elderly people to make sure they are provided with a good quality service according to their condition. Cooperating with the Care Management Service in order to carrying out the Care Plan, and endeavoring maintain quality of service. 

‚QDTo perform the above roles, the care manager is required to have "be of exampling character" (perfectly having a balance of intelligence, emotional stability, and a calm strength of purpose together with) and "an ability to work and cooperate with each others".

(1)He is also required to and "by way of example" by understanding elderlies' mental and physical condition, the state of their daily life, and these relationship with their family.

(2)Finally as well as managing the service, the Care Management needs leadership quality so as to coordinate the care network in the neighborhood so as to support elderly people and their family who can easily become isolated, the needs gthe power to work and cooperate with others". That is why it is important to have not only professional knowledge about the care, but also a fine character and experience in achieving positive outcomes by strong leadership.

(Reference data: a public Welfare White Paper in 1997)

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 E.& O.E.

Bedridden | Personal Care | Terminal Care
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 Last modified: 2004/2/1