始計篇(I. LAYING PLANS)


1. 孫子曰く、兵は国の大事。

2. 死生の地、存亡の道、察せざるべからず。

3. 故に、之を経するに五事を以てし、之を校ふるに計を以てして其情を索む。

4. 一に曰く道、二に曰く天、三に曰く地、四に曰く将、五に曰く法なり。

5,6. 道は、民をして上と意を同じうし、之と死すべく、之と生くべく、危うきを畏れざらしむるなり。

7. 天は、陰陽 寒暑 時制なり。

8. 地は、遠近 険易 広狭 死生なり。

9. 将は、智 信 仁 勇 厳なり。

10. 法は、曲制 官道 主用なり。

11. 凡そ、この五者は、将聞かざるなし。之を知るものは勝ち、知らざるものは勝たず。

12. 故にこれを校ぶるに計を以ってして、其の情を索む。

13. 曰く、主、何れか有道なる、将、何れか有能なる、天地、何れか得たる、法令、何れか行なわる、兵衆、何れか強き、士卒、何れか練いた、賞罰、何れか明らかなること

14. 吾、これを以て勝負を知る。

15. 将、吾が計を聴いて之を用ふれば、必ず勝たむ、之に留まらむ。将、吾が計を聴かずして之を用ふれば、必ず敗れむ、之を去らむ。

16. 計、利として以て聴ぁるれば、乃ち之が勢をなして以て其外を佑(たす)く。

17. 勢は利に因って櫂(けい)を制するなり。

18. 兵は偽道なり。

19. 故に能にして之に不能を示し、用ひて之に不用を示し、近くして之に遠きを示し、遠くして之に近きを示し、

20. 利にして之を誘い、乱して之を取り、

21. 実にして之を備へ、強にして之を避け、

22. 怒にして之を撓し、卑にして之を驕らし、

23. 逸にして之を労し、親にして之を離す、

24. その無備を攻め、その不意に出づる、

25. 此れ兵家の勢、先には伝うべからざるなり。

26. 夫れ未だ戦はずして、廊算するに勝つものは、算を得ること多きなり。
未だ戦わずして、廊算するに勝たざるものはさんを得ること少なきなり。
算多きは勝ち、算少なきは勝たず。然るを況(いわん)や算無きに於おや。吾、此れを以って之を観るに勝負見(あら)わる。


1. Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State.

2. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected.

3. The art of war, then, is governed by five constant factors, to be taken into account in one's deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field.

4. These are: (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.

5,6. The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.

7. Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, times and seasons.

8. Earth comprises distances, great and small; danger and security; open ground and narrow passes; the chances of life and death.

9. The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness.

10. By method and discipline are to be understood the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions, the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the control of military expenditure.

11. These five heads should be familiar to every general: he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them not will fail.

12. Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking to determine the military conditions, let them be made the basis of a comparison,
in this wise:--

13. (1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral law? (2) Which of the two generals has most ability? (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained? (7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment?

14. By means of these seven considerations I can forecast victory or defeat.

15. The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts upon it, will conquer: let such a one be retained in command! The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it, will suffer defeat:--let such a one be dismissed!

16. While heading the profit of my counsel, avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances over and beyond the ordinary rules.

17. According as circumstances are favorable, one should modify one's plans.

18. All warfare is based on deception.

19. Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near.

20. Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him.

21. If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. If he is in superior strength, evade him.

22. If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to irritate him. Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant.

23. If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them.

24. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected.

25. These military devices, leading to victory, must not be divulged beforehand.

26. Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.




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